Psychological And Physiological Anxiety Measures
Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant effect on phase and group × phase interaction for VAMS anxiety factor . However, no difference was found between the groups . With regard to other VAMS factors, there was a significant effect of phase on mental sedation , physical sedation , and other feelings . However, there were no significant effects of these parameters on group × phase interaction and the groups.
Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of phase on heart rate without differences between the groups or group × phase interaction. Moreover, there were no differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the phases, groups, or group × phase interaction.
Do Symptoms Get Worse
PD does not affect everyone the same way. The rate of progression and the particular symptoms differ among individuals.
PD symptoms typically begin on one side of the body. However, the disease eventually affects both sides, although symptoms are often less severe on one side than on the other.
Early symptoms of PD may be subtle and occur gradually. Affected people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. Activities may take longer to complete than in the past. Muscles stiffen and movement may be slower. The persons face may lack expression and animation . People may notice that they speak too softly or with hesitation, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. This very early period may last a long time before the more classical and obvious motor symptoms appear.
As the disease progresses, symptoms may begin to interfere with daily activities. Affected individuals may not be able to hold utensils steady or they may find that the shaking makes reading a newspaper difficult.
People with PD often develop a so-called parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward, taking small quick steps as if hurrying , and reduced swinging in one or both arms. They may have trouble initiating movement , and they may stop suddenly as they walk .
Multiple Sclerosis Vs Parkinsons Disease: Us Prevalence And Economic Impact
Anyone can develop multiple sclerosis, but it mostly affects 20- to 40-year-olds. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the U.S. is estimated at over 400,000 cases, and nearly 200 new cases are diagnosed each week. Rates of multiple sclerosis are highest in areas furthest away from the equator, so the rates are higher in the Northern U.S.
Direct and indirect costs resulting from multiple sclerosis can range from $8,528 to $54,244.
One million Americans live with Parkinsons disease. The average cost of Parkinsons disease including treatment, lost work wages, and social security payments is $25 billion annually in the U.S.
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Alzheimers Disease Is A Frightening Type Of Dementia That Causes Issues With Memory Thinking Processes And Behavior
The symptoms generally start slow and gradually worsen over time and increasingly interfere with the patients day-to-day tasks and relationships.
Studies into the causes and cures for Alzheimers has been ongoing for decades, and while no single cause has been determined, recent studies have uncovered some things that can increase a persons risk of developing the disease. One of those things is stress.
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How Do You Care For Someone With Dementia
Caring for a patient with vascular dementia can be a challenging experience. But there are ways to make things a little easier for both you and your loved one:
- Establish a routine.;A calm environment can reduce worry and agitation, which in turn helps the person cope with their dementia. Establishing a daily routine that includes comfortable activities can help create this calm environment and take some pressure off you as well.
- Help them with cognitive rehabilitation. If your loved one struggles with memory or attention, they may not do cognitive rehab on their own. Instead, you may need to help them with their exercises. If this becomes too frustrating, remember to take care of yourself too.
- Find a support group.;Caring for someone with post-stroke dementia can be a full-time job, and this can lead to social isolation. Support groups put you in touch with people going through the same experiences and give you a network you can rely on for help and advice.
- Take time for yourself.;To avoid caregiver burnout, its important to take time to care for your own needs. If possible, have another family member take over your caregiving duties for the day and allow yourself time to recharge.
Following these tips can help lighten the burden a little and make the caregiving process smoother.
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Study Linking Dementia To Anti
An article published online in the prestigious;British Medical Journal;found a link between dementia and the use of anti-anxiety medications such as Valium, Xanax and other benzodiazepines . The researchers examined almost 9,000 older adults for 6 years after the use of the medication for insomnia or anxiety. ;People in their study were 51% more likely to develop dementia if they had ever taken benzodiazepines, and the longer they took the drugs the more likely they were to develop it.;;However, anxiety and sleep disorders could be early symptoms of dementia, rather than caused by dementia. This study didnt examine whether using the drugs occurred before or after dementia started.; Since dementia usually takes years to develop, and this study only followed patients for 6 years, it is very likely that many of these patients were already developing the disease before taking benzodiazepines. The study was also missing information about other risk factors that the patients may have had for Alzheimers, such as smoking and alcohol use.
More information about pesticide use and Alzheimers can be found;here.
More information about these signs and symptoms can be found;here.
All articles are reviewed and approved by Dr. Diana Zuckerman and other senior staff.
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The Case Of Fluvoxamine Maleate
The role of serotonergic drugs in PD associated with depression has been receiving considerable attention amongst the research community . As a link between DA and the development of depression in patients with PD has been suggested, the pathophysiological features of both PD and depression have in common DA pathway dysfunction and depletion and/or 5-HT deficit . It has been suggested that an increase in serotonergic tone may indirectly influence DA function and may contribute to increased motor activity which is partially blocked by DA antagonists . Studies have shown that depression may be associated with an abnormal level of DA . As studies have also shown that brain regions affected by abnormal DA processing may also be affected when 5-HT is abnormally processed, we hypothesize that Fluvoxamine maleate treatment may play a role in improving the chemical imbalance caused by low levels of DA in the brain .
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Anxiety And Parkinsons Research
What does this finding mean for the future of diagnosis or treatment of Parkinsons? Ongoing research is compelling, says Pontone. Part of what we are doing is looking at anxiety disorders that occur long before the onset of Parkinsons to see if there are characteristics that may differentiate that anxiety or predict an increased risk of Parkinsons disease.
Meanwhile, because theres an established link between anxiety and Parkinsons disease, patients and their families should be upfront with their doctors about anxiety symptoms. Behavioral therapy and medications for example, anti-anxiety meds or antidepressants can effectively treat anxiety disorders. Theres no need for anyone to suffer in silence.
Targeting Parkinsons-Linked Protein Could Neutralize 2 of the Diseases Causes
Researchers report they have discovered how two problem proteins known to cause Parkinsons disease are chemically linked, suggesting that someday, both could be neutralized by a single drug designed to target the link.
Strategies To Help You Manage These Feelings
- Talk to someone about how you feel. This is one way to get these feelings out into the open. Talk to a close friend, a family member or someone with whom you feel comfortable.
- Meet with other people who live with dementia. Together, you can share your feelings and experiences and offer each other social and emotional support.
- Contact your local Alzheimer Society to see if there is a support group in your area. If not, you may be interested in helping the Society start one. Another option may be to have the Society get you in touch with someone who can provide one-on-one support.
- Recognize that each of us has our own way of dealing with our feelings. The important thing is to find a way or ways of coping with these emotions that makes you feel better.
- Listen to what other people living with dementia suggest. When we asked the same people who shared their reactions and feeling how they coped with their emotions, hereâs what they said:
- âAcknowledge it.â
- âTake one day at a time.â
- âJoin a support group. The more you speak, you get a load off your chest.â
- âBe with people you can laugh with.â
- âGo for a walk with someone.â
- âDonât be shy. Ask for help.â
- âTell people if they hurt your feelings.â
- âAnimals are good for people. Animals are calming.â
- âDonât stay enclosed, isolated. Get out.â
- âNever give up hope. Living is worth it.
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Tip #: The Journey Continues
Stay curious and engaged. It feels easier at times to withdraw from the world, but your presence can still make a difference and your new-found status can act as a source of inspiration to others. Even this cloud can have a silver lining and you may discover new opportunities, like being invited by Michael Okun and Indu Subramanian to write for this blog!
To read more books and articles by Michael S. Okun MD check on and these websites with blogs and information on his books and #Livingwith Parkinsons #EndingPD #Parkinsonsecrets #LessonsFromTheBedside
He also serves as the Medical Advisor for the Parkinsons Foundation.
To see more on Dr. Indu Subramanian she does live interviews of experts in Parkinsons for the PMD Alliance. ;
Can Stress Continue Its Effect Once A Patient Is Diagnosed With Parkinsons Disease
Stress continues to affect a patients physical and mental health and acute stress level even after the diagnosis of Parkinsons disease may play a role in the speedy progression of the disease. Patients are seen to complain of experiencing increased amount of stress once they are diagnosed of Parkinsons disease. Patients complain of experiencing stress from the thought of needing to go to the washroom. This occurs due to the difficulty from the patients part to accept the fate of reduced independency. However, it should be remembered that, stress in Parkinsons disease id never beneficial. In fact is further deteriorates the condition of the patient, worsening the symptoms.
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Oxidative Stress Neuroinflammation And Parkinsons Disease
Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the body capacity to counteract their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidant defenses . Brain neurons are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as a result of endogenous or exogenous exposure to oxidative stress . Chronic psychological stress increases neuroinflammation which may facilitate nigral cell death in PD . For instance, under stress conditions, there is evidence that dysfunction of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor -, interleukin -1, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor – in microglia of patients with depression participates in worsening PD symptoms .
PD research is often directed towards the prevention of DA neuron degeneration . However, all current treatments only address the symptomatic effects of the disease, none of which neither halt nor retard DA neuron degeneration . About 95% of PD cases are sporadic hence caused by environmental factors versus 5% that are inherited . The point of view in favor of exposure to stressful events early in life predisposing an individual to develop neurodegenerative disorders later in life seems to emphasize that PD is much more than just a DA-dependent motor deficit.
Pessimism And Anxiety Linked To Parkinson’s
Researchers See Connection Between Personality Traits and Development of Parkinson’s Disease
“This is the first study to show that people with high levels of an anxious or pessimistic personality are at higher risk for developing Parkinson’s disease up to several decades later,” says James Bower, MD, a neurologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and a researcher on the study.
The researchers followed nearly 5,000 men and women who took a standardized personality test between 1962 and 1965; 128 of them developed Parkinson’s disease over the next 35 to 40 years.
People who scored highest on anxiety scores were 60% more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than those scoring lower, Bower says. And those who scored in the top 25% on the pessimism scale were 50% more likely to develop the progressive neurological disease, he tells WebMD.
The people who developed Parkinson’s disease had anxieties that go beyond common worries about what’s for dinner or job stress, Bower says. “These are the chronic worriers — the people who worry about things that most people never seem to worry about.”
Parkinson’s disease, a disorder that affects nerve cells in the part of the brain controlling muscle movement, is characterized by trembling, muscle rigidity, difficulty walking, and problems with balance and coordination. These symptoms generally develop after age 50, although the disease affects a small percentage of younger people as well.
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What Research Is Being Done
The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use the knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health , the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. NINDS conducts and supports three types of research: basicscientific discoveries in the lab, clinicaldeveloping and studying therapeutic approaches to Parkinsons disease, and translationalfocused on tools and resources that speed the development of therapeutics into practice. The goals of NINDS-supported research on Parkinsons disease are to better understand and diagnose PD, develop new treatments, and ultimately, prevent PD. NINDS also supports training for the next generation of PD researchers and clinicians and serves as an important source of information for people with PD and their families.
Can Ptsd Lead To Dementia
Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with up to a twofold increased risk of dementia, new research shows. Investigators found that individuals with PTSD had a 61% higher risk of dementia, and pooled data from two particular studies showed that PTSD was associated with a doubling of dementia risk.
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Role Of Serotonin In Parkinsons Disease
Studies have shown that the 5-HT transmission system also undergoes degeneration in PD . The neuronal degeneration in the midbrain raphe nuclei is known to lead to reductions in 5-HT and 5-HT transporter levels in brain areas such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex . However, 5-HT neurons have the ability to store and release DA synthesized from systematically administered DA medication such as levodopa . For instance, in a 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of PD with severe nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron degeneration, it has been shown that striatal reuptake of levodopa-derived DA can occur through 5-HT transporters . Further, it has been shown that monoamine transporter inhibitors such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can modify striatal dopamine reuptake and metabolism so as to improve motor symptoms of PD . A new treatment approach for PD may therefore consist of blocking 5-HT transporters to enhance and/or prolong the antiparkinsonian effects of drugs that have the potential to increase extracellular DA in the striatum including SSRIs.
Stress Management For Pd
It is not uncommon for the stresses of daily life feeling overwhelmed, under prepared and over stimulated to cause anxiety and unrest. These psychological issues can impact your health and even exacerbate the symptoms of Parkinsons disease . That is why it is important to assess what may be causing stress and learn how to deal with the situations that give rise to anxiety. Meditation, yoga or Tai Chi and deep breathing can help restore a sense of calm. Whether you are living with Parkinsons or caring for someone with PD, finding balance can help you cope with the daily stresses of life. This may mean limiting your exposure to environmental stressors or using complementary therapies. Such approaches are wonderful ways to lower anxiety, lower blood pressure and improve your all-around health.
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Anxiety A Risk Factor For Dementia
Of the body of research examined, only four studies focused on the desired topic; these studies accounted for potential confounders such as vascular and psychiatric conditions, and demographic factors.
The researchers were unable to carry out a pooled analysis of these four studies because they were designed so differently, but the authors mention that the methods used in the studies were reliable and their conclusions solid.
Additionally, the combined sample size of the four studies was large, including almost 30,000 people.
All four studies found a positive correlation between moderate to severe anxiety and later development of dementia: Clinically significant anxiety in midlife was associated with an increased risk of dementia over an interval of at least 10 years, write the researchers.
These findings suggest that anxiety may be an independent risk factor for late-onset dementia, excluding the anxiety that might represent the initial symptoms of dementia, write Gimson and colleagues.
The link between anxiety and dementia, the authors note, may be explained by the excessive stress response triggered by the mental health condition.
This abnormally high stress response might accelerate the aging process of brain cells, which, in turn, may speed up age-related cognitive decline.