What Are The Symptoms Of Hyperglycemia
The signs and symptoms include the following:
- High blood sugar
- High levels of sugar in the urine
- Frequent urination
- Increased thirst
Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood sugar often. Ask your doctor how often you should check and what your blood sugar levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating high blood sugar early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia.
How Stress Affects Your Heart Health
Everyone has stress from time to time, whether from work, financial trouble, family problems, or facing a big life change, like moving.
When youâre feeling strained, your body releases adrenaline and cortisol, hormones that rev up your heart, sharpen your brain, and help you deal with problems. A little stress may even be good for you by helping you focus on a challenge in your life and work harder to overcome it.
Constant stress is another story. If itâs nonstop and lasts for a long time, your stress hormones remain at high levels and put a dangerous strain on your heart and other parts of your body. High levels of cortisol from chronic or long-term stress can cause high blood cholesterol, along with other heart disease risks.
Over time, excess LDL, or âbad,â cholesterol can build up in your arteries, causing them to become clogged and hard. Stress also triggers inflammation that lowers your HDL, or âgood,â cholesterol, which helps clear out extra LDL.
In general, healthy adults should have:
- Total cholesterol: below 200 mg/dL
- LDL cholesterol: less than 100 mg/dL, or below 70 mg/dL for people with heart disease or diabetes
- HDL cholesterol: 40 mg/dL or higher for men, 50 mg/dL or higher for women
- Triglycerides: less than 150 mg/dL
Tips To Manage Your Stress
Fight the urge to overeat, binge on junk food or alcohol, or smoke when youâre stressed. All of these may seem to help you relax, but theyâre short-term fixes that have long-term effects on your health.
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Do You Have To Fast For An A1c Blood Test
Unlike the fasting plasma glucose and the OGTT tests, there is no need to fast before having the A1C test. If A1C test results indicate a person has or might have diabetes, a healthcare provider might suggest one of these tests to confirm the results. Another test, the random plasma glucose test, which does not require fasting, can also be used. If the results are borderline or if the results of the different tests do not match, a doctor might suggest repeating the test in several weeks or months.
A1c Has A Greater Pre
Even when preparation to glucose testing is optimal, plasma glucose values may still be misleading because of pre-analytical instability. In fact, tubes for blood collection do not always contain antiglycolytic substances, and even when they do, significant glucose consumption occurs in blood cells in the first 12 h after sampling because glycolysis is inhibited in its more distal steps by NaF or other preservatives. As long as the sample is not processed and plasma and blood cells are separated by centrifugation, a significant glucose loss is observed. In this regard, it must be emphasized that, quite often, blood samples reach the laboratory and are processed hours after withdrawal. Consistently, glucose concentration decreases 57% per hour and even more rapidly in cases of high ambient temperature . In such cases, glucose levels can show results lower than they are and diabetes diagnosis can be missed. It has been estimated that pre-analytical variability of FPG is 510%. On the contrary, pre-analytical variability of A1C is negligible. As for analytical variability, it is superimposable for glucose and A1C, being 2%.
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What To Do If You Have A Blood Sugar Spike
For those with diabetes, having a blood sugar spike can be dangerous because too much sugar in the blood passes into the urine. This triggers the body to filter out the fluid, which could lead to dehydration or a diabetic coma.
In the event that blood sugar levels spike because of stressors that cannot be managed, its vital to make managing your blood glucose a priority. You can do this by focusing on things you can control, such as your diet and exercise, checking your blood sugar regularly, and taking your medications as instructed by your physician.
Stress Triggers Unhealthy Habits
Part of the link between stress and cholesterol lies in the ways people often handle their stress. In tough times, you may eat unhealthy foods and gain weight, smoke, drink too much alcohol, or spend more time on the couch than exercising. All of these raise your risk of high cholesterol.
If you already have high cholesterol, stress may make it worse. In one study of about 200 middle-aged men and women with high cholesterol who were tracked for 3 years, people with higher levels of stress had elevated cholesterol compared with those who had lower stress.
Young, fit, and otherwise healthy people may have high cholesterol during stressful times in their lives. A study of 208 college students who were 30 or younger had blood tests around the time of their exams. At this stressful time, the students showed higher levels of cortisol, adrenaline, and cholesterol, including total and LDL cholesterol.
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Standardization Of A1c Assay Is Not Inferior To Standardization Of Glucose Assay
One of the main concerns surrounding A1C and raising perplexities on its use for diabetes diagnosis is the poor standardization of the assay. Quite surprisingly, the same concerns and perplexities do not extend to A1C use for diabetes monitoring despite the understanding that only when A1C is aligned to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial /UK Prospective Diabetes Study standard should the recommended target be pursued . A great effort was made in the U.S. and other countries to make reproducible A1C across laboratories with an effective standardization program. Such a program has been recently completed and is being implemented worldwide to provide more reliable information to physicians who monitor diabetic patients . The standardization is expected to minimize laboratory biases and is a prerequisite to use A1C not only for monitoring but also for diagnosing diabetes.
Although it is generally believed that glucose assay is highly reproducible across laboratories, this is not true. A recent survey conducted in 6,000 U.S. laboratories clearly documented a significant bias in glucose assessment in as many as 41% of them, yielding a misclassification of glucose tolerance in 12% of subjects . Therefore, the argument that A1C cannot be used for diabetes diagnosis because of poor standardization is no longer tenable.
Causes Of High Blood Sugar Levels
A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It’s a three-way balancing act of:
All of these need to be balanced to keep blood sugar levels under control. If any one is off, blood sugar levels can be, too.
In general, problems controlling blood sugar levels are due to one or more of the following:
- not getting enough insulin or other diabetes medicine
- not following the meal plan
- not getting enough exercise
- use of certain medicines that can raise blood sugar, like steroids used to treat inflammation
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How Does Exercise Help With Stress
Research studies, including one from Maastricht University in 2000, show that physical activity can increase insulin sensitivity and help to lower blood glucose levels, as well as burn calories.
In the UK, the NHS advise to build up to 150 minutes of aerobic activity, such as jogging or brisk walking, each week.
Moving your body through a wide range of motions can also give the mind a rest from the pressures of everyday life. Some people find this relaxing as the mind is preoccupied with exercising rather than worrying about any problems in life.
What Causes Hyperglycemia
A number of things can cause hyperglycemia:
- If you have type 1, you may not have given yourself enough insulin.
- If you have type 2, your body may have enough insulin, but it is not as effective as it should be.
- You ate more than planned or exercised less than planned.
- You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu.
- You have other stress, such as family conflicts or school or dating problems.
- You may have experienced the dawn phenomenon .
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How Often Is A1c Tested
To keep A1C levels in check, patients should have the test repeated regularly. If the A1C is less than 5.7, indicating you dont have diabetes, you should have it checked every three years, according to Robert Williams, MD, a family doctor and geriatrician in Lakewood, Colorado, and a medical advisor for eMediHealth. If it is between 5.7 and 6.4, indicating you are at risk of developing diabetes, you should have it rechecked every one to two years. If you have a confirmed diabetes diagnosis, and your blood sugar is well-controlled, you should have an A1C test every six months. If you already have diabetes and your medications change, or your blood sugar is not well-controlled, you should have an A1C test every three months.
Can You Have High A1c And Not Be Diabetic
According to one 2009 study, 3.8% of people without a history of diabetes have an elevated A1C level . This group is more likely to have other risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Researchers found that the following groups were more likely to have an elevated A1C without having a diagnosis of diabetes:
- Higher C-reactive protein levels
A high A1C result might signal that there is a problem. Even a modest increase in your blood sugar, above normal levels, can increase your risk of heart disease, even when you dont have full-blown diabetes, says Dr. Bellatoni. A physician can review test results and talk to patients about risk factors and lifestyle changes to improve blood sugar levels.
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What Are Normal A1c Levels For People Who Don’t Have Diabetes
Generally, high A1c values indicate high average blood sugar levels and that a person might be at risk for or may have diabetes. The American Diabetes Association has established the following cutoffs:
Prediabetes, meaning at risk for developing type 2 diabetes
6.5% or greater
Make sure you get a regular A1c test, especially if you think you might be at risk for diabetes.
How Does Age Affect A1c
A1c is a measure of diabetes management, so your A1c won’t naturally shift as you get older. However, as you age your diabetes management strategies and A1c goals may change for example, younger people may be more focused on reducing long-term health complications, while older people may concentrate on avoiding severe lows. Talk with your healthcare professional if you’re curious about how your age may affect your A1c levels.
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Diabetes Tracking And Treatment
- Follow your diabetes treatment plan: Understand the treatment plan before leaving the healthcare providers office and discuss barriers that could prevent you from following the program. Attend all follow-up visits.
- Consistently take prescribed medications: If a healthcare provider has prescribed medications to reduce blood sugar levels, take them regularly. Some people only take medication when they arent feeling well, but these medications dont work unless taken consistently.
- Monitor and track blood sugar: Regular blood sugar monitoring is the most important step in diabetes management, according to the CDC. Healthcare providers can inform patients of different types of meters and help patients find the best one for them. Providers can also tell patients how often to check their blood sugar and what their target blood sugar range is.Keep a log of your blood sugar levels to look for patterns and triggers for blood sugar spikes and lows. If you wear a continuous glucose monitor, you can use the data. Learning what causes blood sugar to rise or decrease can help you create a plan to keep it consistent.
A1c Ranges And What They Mean
An A1C result is presented as a percentage, which reflects the percentage of glucose and hemoglobin that are bound together. For example, the A1C level where there are five glycated hemoglobin out of 100 hemoglobin would be 5%.
- Normal: Less than 5.7%
- Prediabetes: 5.7% to 6.4%
- Diabetes: 6.5% or higher
The higher the A1C, the higher your blood glucose levels have been. If your A1C falls into the range of prediabetes, you should talk to your healthcare provider to determine the best way to prevent type 2 diabetes because prediabetes is a known risk factor of type 2 diabetes. In general, within the prediabetes range, the higher the A1C, the greater the risk of diabetes.
The A1C test should not be used to diagnose type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, or cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
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Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Conducted after fasting for eight hours, drinking a high-sugar glucose solution, and waiting two more hours a reading of at least 140 mg/dL is considered a sign of prediabetes. A reading of 200 mg/dL or higher is type 2 diabetes. For optimal health, you want to aim for a two-hour glucose of 110 mg/dL or lower.
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Is The Psa Test Accurate
PSA test accuracy is questionable because there many factors interfere with the measurement. A false measurement can be misleading and prompt a prostate biopsy. This procedure is useful for detecting prostate cancer. However, it has consequences that affect the quality of life of patients.
A prostate biopsy can cause chronic bleeding and chronic pain. The site of the procedure can become infected and bring along other problems. There would be no point if the result was a false positive, and the patient stays with pain and bleeding for a long period. Thus, PSA accuracy is very important if we want to use PSA screening for prostate cancer.
Since this test can sometimes be misleading, PSA testing is recommended for some patients. If you have urinary symptoms or risk factors for prostate cancer, youre a candidate. However, every patient presents a different case, and you will need the opinion of an expert.
Stil, PSA is beneficial for urologists. Along with the Gleason score, it is used to evaluate how aggressive cancer is. It can help your urologist to decide if hes going to perform a radical prostatectomy. It is also very useful for patients during active surveillance. This is a watch and see approach doctors use in senior patients with non-aggressive cancer .
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What Tools Are Available If An A1c Test Is Not Accurate Or Sufficient
Besides A1c tests, the most common measures of blood sugar are the oral glucose tolerance test , CGM, and self-monitored blood glucose tests.
The OGTT is a diagnostic tool diabetes and prediabetes, assessing a persons response to consuming a fixed amount of sugar. After taking the sugar drink, blood sugar levels are measured two hours later. Below 140 mg/dl is considered normal, between 140 mg/dl and 200 mg/dl points to prediabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, and above 200 mg/dl indicates diabetes. It is not useful for tracking diabetes management.
For those with established diabetes, CGM has the advantage of monitoring blood sugar levels consistently throughout the day , providing more detailed insight into time spent in-range, low blood sugars, and high blood sugars. Examples of CGM include:
Senseonics implantable Eversense CGM
If CGM is not available, taking frequent fingersticks with a blood glucose meter when waking up, before and after meals, and before bed can also indicate when blood sugar levels are going low, high, and staying in range.
Reasons For Elevated A1c Without Diabetes
This author has been verfied for credibility and expertise
An A1c blood test, also called hemoglobin A1c, is recommended by the American Diabetes Association for prediabetes and diabetes screening, and recommended for routine monitoring of blood sugar levels in people with diabetes 3.A1c is a form of hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells — that has combined with a molecule of blood sugar or glucose. As a marker for how much glucose has been present in the blood over time, elevated A1c values are most commonly seen in people with prediabetes and diabetes 3. However, in certain medical situations, A1c may be elevated in someone who does not have these conditions.
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How Can I Avoid Anxiety
Appropriate stress management may be key to avoiding conditions such as anxiety. Relaxation techniques include:
- Breathing exercises
Relaxation methods such as the ones listed above are all be effective in relieving stress. Mindfulness based training in combination with diabetes management are proving an invaluable approach to aid the process of acceptance, while alleviating anxiety and stress.
Research conducted at the psychology department at Stanford University used brain imaging technologies to examine the effect of mindfulness training on social anxiety. They reported that participants who completed the mindfulness course showed reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression and demonstrated an enhanced self-esteem.
Mindfulness practices help to adjust the relationship one has with their panic and anxiety with acceptance, compassion and awareness.
This methodology has been shown to be significantly more effective in the long term. It has been scientifically proven to enhance quality of life and allow the practitioner to develop a disassociation with panic and anxiety, meaning they no longer need these states to define who they are or how they live their lives.