Platelet Sequestration By The Spleen
Your spleen helps regulate the numbers of red blood cells and platelets in your blood as well as helping to regulate your immune system. The spleen typically stores 30 to 40 percent of your platelets. However, if your spleen becomes enlarged, it can retain up to 90 percent of platelets, leaving only a small number in your blood. Diseases such as blood cancers involving the spleen or liver disease can cause the spleen to become enlarged and sequester a larger number of platelets from circulation in the blood.
- Your spleen helps regulate the numbers of red blood cells and platelets in your blood as well as helping to regulate your immune system.
- Diseases such as blood cancers involving the spleen or liver disease can cause the spleen to become enlarged and sequester a larger number of platelets from circulation in the blood.
Low Platelet Count Causes
Wondering what causes the abnormalities described above? According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, some of the most common underlying reasons for alternations in normal blood platelet counts include:
- Enlarged spleen: The spleen helps fight infections and clean the blood, so illnesses that cause an enlarged spleen can cause too many platelets to become trapped inside while the body tries to fight off bacteria or a virus. In healthy people, around;one-third of the bodys platelets are held in the spleen, but conditions like;liver disease/cirrhosis prevent scarring, which keep platelets harbored inside.
- Reactions to medications and over-the-counter drugs: Platelet production can be altered due to the use of drugs, including;diuretics, NSAID anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics, or frequently taking common painkillers like ibuprofen;and aspirin.;
- Autoimmune diseases: Diseases like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis cause the immune system to mistakenly attack and destroys platelets. This is called;immune thrombocytopenia;or ITP.
- Alcohol:;Alcohol ;slows the production of platelets and is the biggest problem when its consumed excessively, especially if someones diet is also low in nutrients.
- Toxin exposure from the environment: Chemicals commonly found in the environment, including;pesticides, arsenic and benzene, can all slow the production of platelets.
Cardiovascular Diseases And Stress
In the late 1990s, two studies investigated the effect of hostility as a chronic mental stress condition on platelet reactivity in patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases .2). Plasma -TG levels and GPIIb/IIIa receptor activation were measured. The investigations observed that hostility was significantly related to higher -TG reactivity and increased platelet activation index markers, such as GPIIb/IIIa activation and fibrinogen binding.
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Questions For Your Doctor
- What are my treatment options? Which do you recommend?
- Do these treatments have side effects? What can I do about them?
- How will we know if the treatment is working?
- When will I start to feel better?
- What do you expect for my case?
- Does this condition put me at risk for anything else?
- Do I need to see a specialist?
Recovery Of Platelet Parameters In The Condition With And Without Chronic Mental Stress
We performed an additional analysis of platelet function recovery for the condition CS+ and CS- outside the mixed linear model reported above. Observed values were compared by analyzing the difference between T1 and T3 in the condition CS+ and CS-. Platelet CD62P showed impaired recovery i.e. a prolonged activation in the CS+ condition CS+: mean 0.85 ; CS-: mean 1.52 , T-Test, p=0.023). The recovery of the other platelet activation markers CD63 , PAC-1 and CD45highCD42b+ was not significantly altered in CS+ condition compared to CS-.
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What Causes Low Platelets In Pregnancy
Outside of pregnancy, a normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000/µL .
It’s normal for your platelet count to dip by a few thousand during pregnancy, due in part to hemodilution: the body makes more plasma during pregnancy, so the total number of platelets per volume of blood will be lower.
When the number dips below 100,000-150,000/µL, your doctor will want to keep a closer eye on you to reduce the risk of complications.
During pregnancy, about 10 percent of women have platelets counts below 150,000/µL. Of these, approximately:
- 75 percent are due to normal changes in pregnancy
- 21 percent are related to hypertensive diseases, such as preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome
- 4 percent are due to inherited or immunological conditions in which the immune system makes antibodies which attack platelet cells
Approximately 1 percent of patients have platelets counts of less than 100,000/µL, which might impact pregnancy management.
Platelets may be destroyed at a higher rate in pregnancy. As the spleen increases in size due to increased blood volume during pregnancy, it may destroy more platelets in the filtering process.
A severe lack of folic acid in your blood can cause thrombocytopenia, so it is important to take your prenatal vitamins. Certain bacterial and viral illnesses such as Epstein-Barr, HIV, and hepatitis B and C can also lower your platelet count.
Do You Have A Low Platelet Count Risks & 7 Natural Treatments
Do you tend to bruise easily and have trouble stoping cuts or wounds from bleeding? Or perhaps frequently get nosebleeds or bloody gums? If so, theres a chance you have a low platelet count.
Having a low platelet count a condition called thrombocytopenia is a problem with normal blood clotting and bruising;that results from having low levels of;thrombocytes,;colorless blood cells produced by bone marrow. Thrombocytes are responsible for helping form blood clots in the arteries/veins and stopping bleeding. A low platelet count puts someone at a higher risk for internal bleeding or other blood clotting and blood vessel-related problems and unfortunately can sometimes really take a toll on quality of life.
Idiopathic;thrombocytopenia purpura is the type of low platelet count caused by an autoimmune disease;that affects how platelets are produced and used ;in the body. Autoimmune disorders, including arthritis, leukemia and lymphoma, can all trigger ITP, and factors like medication use and toxin exposure can also lower blood platelet counts. Not every patient with low platelet counts has a serious autoimmune disorder. Some cases of mild thrombocytopenia are caused by common lifestyle factors, can be treated pretty easily, and dont even cause any noticeable signs and symptoms at all.
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Ask Questions About Your Lab Results
It can be alarming to see a word like “thrombocytopenia” or a low number compared with the baseline on your lab results.
For most patients, having mild-to-moderate low platelets won’t change your pregnancy care or birth plan much, if at all. Moore, despite the changes to her plan, that her healthy baby boy arrived on his due date in late February.
However, it is important to talk with your doctor about your risks for complications related to low platelets. If your lab results indicate low platelets, follow Moore’s lead ask your provider to explain what that means for you. We’re hear to help you make informed decisions and have a healthier, safer pregnancy and delivery.
To visit with an Ob/Gyn about low platelets in pregnancy, call orrequest an appointment online.
How To Treat Thrombocytopenia
The treatment you will receive for thrombocytopenia ultimately depends on the severity and cause of the condition.
If there is no excessive bleeding and platelet counts are not dangerously lowor are still within a safe realmtreatment may consist of little more than monitoring the situation.
Your doctor may schedule some follow-up tests and ask you to pay attention to new bruises or markings. You will be asked to alert them if you notice changes prior to your follow up.
In more severe cases where bleeding is heavier and platelet counts are lower, thrombocytopenia is treated with medicine.
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Platelets As Key Players In Inflammation
It has been known for more than three decades that platelets release arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids . Arachidonic acid is converted into thromboxane A2 , which has both prothrombotic and vasoconstrictive properties. This pathway serves as the target for aspirin, the primary antithrombotic currently in use. As outlined above, if an injured vessel is exposed to subendothelial structures , circulating platelets respond quickly, convert to an activated state, adhere and start to form the characteristic hemostatic clot . Among other processes, repair of the damaged vessel involves activated endothelial cells. Several reports describe the involvement of various cell adhesion molecules acting at the interface between platelets and endothelial cells . P-selectin is a well-characterized endothelial and platelet adhesion receptor mediating the interaction of activated platelets and endothelial cells with leukocytes. Platelets release various growth factors that influence endothelial cell physiology and vice versa and activate endothelial signalosome signaling .
What Is The Prognosis For People With Thrombocytopenia
A low platelet count increases your risk of hemorrhage or severe bleeding. Excessive bleeding whether internal or external can be life-threatening. Many people with thrombocytopenia have mild to moderate symptoms. Platelet levels often go up when you treat the underlying cause or change medications.
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Chronic Mental Stress Affects Platelet Cd63 Expression
In our assessment the chronic mental stress condition solely had a significant effect on the increase of platelet marker CD63. This may be explained by the fact that our study design did not result in high enough chronic stress load . The amount of perceived stress seems to be a key player in the stress response system, the students in the current study rated relatively low amounts of perceived stress although a significant increase could be observed in the chronic mental stress condition compared to the condition without chronic mental stress. This increase was within the values reported for university students in challenging situation . Furthermore our participants were sleeping well and still performing within the recommended range of physical activity . In other studies chronic mental stress in the form of caregiving has been shown to be associated with increased CD62P reactivity . While this demonstrates that chronic mental stress due to an exam preparation certainly differs from that of caregiving or childhood trauma, it has nevertheless been shown previously to be associated with immunological and other biological changes .
How Can Having Low Platelets Affect My Pregnancy And Birth Plan
In February, a very pregnant Mandy Moore, star of the popular TV series “This Is Us,” revealed that she had to alter her birth plan due to a diagnosis of low blood platelets. Though Moore didn’t elaborate on what specifically changed, low platelets is a fairly common condition.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are the smallest human blood cells and play a crucial role in blood clotting. Released by your bone marrow, the quantity of these specialized cells in your blood is generally reported on a complete blood count .
Pregnancy is generally a pro-clotting state, which makes sense clotting helps protect women from excessive bleeding at delivery. But there is a delicate balance between activities that help your blood clot and those that cause too much clotting.
At their best, platelets combine with other factors in the blood that control bleeding and help plug holes in the walls of blood vessels.
At their worst, platelets can form clots in the blood vessels in areas that have plaque buildup. This can put you at increased risk for heart attacks and strokes. When you have too few platelets, called thrombocytopenia, maternal complications such as excessive bleeding, premature delivery, or inability to get an epidural can arise.
Thrombocytopenia is often a “silent” condition, causing few noticeable symptoms. Patients have reported mild symptoms such as bleeding gums while brushing their teeth, easy bruising, or reddish-purple spots caused by bleeding below the skin.
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What Causes Low Platelet Count
Low platelet count can be caused by multiple factors, and in many cases, it is easily reversed.
Changing your medications or diet, or addressing the health condition behind the lowered count may be accomplished rather quickly.
For cases where platelet production is the focus of care, medicines can boost counts in a hurry as well. Therefore, mitigating the risk of thrombocytopenia is quite possible when the appropriate diagnosis is made and action taken immediately.
The main causes of thrombocytopenia are:
- Insufficient production of platelets by the bone marrow
- Rapid destruction or overuse of platelets
- Excess, or trapped, platelets in the spleen
Some other causes of low platelet counts include:
Platelet Activation Due To Mental Stress In Healthy Individuals And Elderly Persons
Stress induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperdrive and leads to a functional alteration of the central sympathetic and serotonergic system, possibly via neurotransmission influenced by a corticotrophin-releasing factor. This HPA axis overactivity is sustained by activation of the inflammatory response system through mental stress.
The effect of mental stress tasks – mental arithmetic or cold pressor test – on platelet bioactivity PF-4 and -TG has been assessed in healthy young men. A significant influence of stress tasks, resulting in an increase in PF-4 and -TG, was observed.
Aschbacher et al conducted four different studies on platelet reactivity in elderly persons. In dementia caregivers, which is an established paradigm of chronic mental stress, the effect of additional acute mental stress in combination with depressive and anxious symptoms or hormone replacement therapy was investigated in a cross-sectional design. Two longitudinal studies were also performed to assess the effect of acute mental stress in an elderly population without caregiving strain and in dementia caregivers in combination with persistent depressive symptoms.
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The Effect Of Different Mental Stress Conditions On Platelet Aggregability
The acute mental stress task significantly influenced the aggregation measured by PFA due to col/ADP whereas col/EPI was not significantly changed. The chronic mental stress condition lead to a significant prolongation of col/EPI only. Our findings are partly contrasting previous research where no effect of chronic mental stress on PFA testing was found . In line with our present findings it has been shown in healthy participants that the Stroop task doesnt lead to any aggregability changes during the test but to decreased aggregability in the aftermath . Similarly were able to detect an increased platelet aggregability during the Stroop task in cardiovascular disease patient, but in healthy volunteers a tendency of the opposite effect. Therefor it may be assumed that that healthy individuals are less prone to acute stress task induced hypercoagulability.
What Is High Platelets
High platelets is a condition in which the blood contains more platelets than normal. Platelets are small blood cell fragments that assist in blood clotting. In a healthy person, there are usually 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. A high platelet count can be identified through routine blood tests.
The occurrence of high platelets is divided into two medical categories: primary thrombocythemia and secondary thrombocytosis. In primary thrombocythemia, the cause of the high platelets is not known, and it occurs as an independent condition. In secondary thrombocytosis, high platelets occurs as a symptom of another disease or condition, such as anemia, infection or .
In many cases, high platelets may not produce specific symptoms. In other cases, the elevation in platelet levels leads to the development of unwanted and unnecessary blood clotting throughout the body, which can produce a number of symptoms.
The presence of high platelets is rarely associated with a medical emergency. However, in some cases, high platelets may cause blood clotting, bleeding or . Seek immediate medical care if high platelets are accompanied by a persistent , difficulty breathing, dizziness, , changes in speech, or or loss of consciousness for even a brief moment.
If your high platelets condition is persistent or causes you concern, seek prompt medical care.
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What Are The Symptoms
The symptoms of hematologic disease depend on many factors. Symptoms depend on which cell type is affected and how low or high the count. This is determined through a complete blood count . In anemia, there is a low number of red blood cells and therefore a decrease in oxygen delivered to tissues. Symptoms include: extreme fatigue, dizziness, loss of concentration, noise in the ear, shortness of breath with exertion, and fast heartbeat. In patients with impaired heart function, anemia can cause congestive heart failure. A low platelet count or thrombocytopenia can result in excessive bruising, red spots on the lower extremities, nose bleeds, bleeding from the mouth and gums, and blood in the urine or stools. Low numbers of white cells can cause repeated bacterial infections.
When a particular blood count is only mildly decreased, it may not cause any symptoms whatsoever. However, an abnormal count can be a marker of an underlying bone marrow disorder or other medical condition, and therefore should be investigated. A patient with liver disease, for example, may have a large spleen and low blood counts, particularly thrombocytopenia. The platelet count is usually not low enough to cause serious bleeding, but it should trigger an investigation as to why the spleen is enlarged, whether from cirrhosis of the liver and portal hypertension, Gaucher’s disease, infection or lymphoma.
Assessment Of Depression And Anxiety Symptom Severity
Patients completed the beck depression inventory and the anxiety subscale of the hospital anxiety and depression scale , each of which measure symptom severity. These scales are commonly used in research and clinical practice, and scores have been linked to post-ACS prognosis in prior research.
For categorical analysis, patients were classified as depressed if they had a BDI score of 10. Although this threshold is not specific for major depression, it is clinically meaningful, and prior research has found this threshold to carry increased risk for post-ACS recurrent cardiac events. Patients were similarly classified as anxious, if they had a HADS-A score of 8, using previously published cutoffs for identifying individuals with clinically meaningful levels of anxiety., This classification yielded four groups: non-depressed and non-anxious, depressed only, anxious only, and depressed and anxious.
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