Looking For More On How To Track Side Effects
Cancer.Net offers several resources to help you keep track of your symptoms and side effects. Please note that these links will take you to other sections of Cancer.Net:
Cancer.Net Mobile: The free Cancer.Net mobile app allows you to securely record the time and severity of symptoms and side effects.
ASCO Answers Managing Pain:Get this 32-page booklet about the importance of pain relief that includes a pain tracking sheet to help patients record how pain affects them. The free booklet is available as a PDF, so it is easy to print.
ASCO Answers Fact Sheets: Read 1-page fact sheets on anxiety and depression, constipation, diarrhea, rash, and immunotherapy side effects that provide a tracking sheet to record details about the side effect. These free fact sheets are available as a PDF, so they are easy to print, fill out, and give to your health care team.
The next section in this guide is Follow-up Care. It explains the importance of checkups after cancer treatment is finished. Use the menu to choose another section to read in this guide.
Getting Your Affairs In Order
There is no one right way to handle end-stage myeloma. Each person with this disease deals with it a little differently. However, people with end-stage myeloma can make certain plans ahead of time that can help make things easier once the end comes.
You may want to consider making an advance directive. An advanced directive is a legal document that helps you communicate your end-of-life medical decisions. End-stage myeloma may cause you to reach a point where you can no longer make decisions for yourself. An advance directive allows you to make some care decisions ahead of time so that your loved ones and health care team know what you want later. You can also use an advance directive to designate a person to make decisions for you. Your health care team may be able to give you an advance directive form or help you write this document.
You may also want to take care of other affairs now to plan for the most positive and comfortable experience for you and loved ones. You may want to consider:
- Gathering important documents such as bank account information, real estate information, or account passwords
- Getting in touch with people you would like to see before you die
- Asking a loved one to contact others once you have passed and making a list of all of the people who need to be notified
- Making funeral arrangements or choosing a funeral home
- Talking to your health care team about any religious or cultural customs that you would like to have happen before or after death
What Gender Is More Likely To Get Leukemia
Leukemia is most frequently diagnosed in people 65 to 74 years of age. Leukemia is more common in men than in women, and more common in Caucasians than in African-Americans. Although leukemia is rare in children, of the children or teens who develop any type of cancer, 30% will develop some form of leukemia.
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What Is The Primary Cause Of Multiple Myeloma Is It Stress
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Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress To Enhance The Activity Of Proteasome Inhibitors
A number of ways to augment the drug activity in MM cells have been proposed in the recent years, based on the better understanding of ER stress and UPR activation roles in resistance to PIs. Currently explored approaches are discussed in this section and summarized in Table 1. The role of target molecules in the context of ER stress in the context of ER stress and UPR modulation are shown in Figure 1.
Table 1. Summary of currently developed approaches to modulate endoplasmic reticulum stress to enhance the activity of proteasome inhibitors
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Can You Live A Long Life After Leukemia
Many people enjoy long and healthy lives after being successfully treated for their blood cancer. Sometimes, however, the treatment can affect a persons health for months or even years after it has finished. Some side effects may not be evident until years after treatment has ceased. These are called late effects.
Treatments And Side Effects
A hematologic-oncologist is the doctor trained to treat blood cancers. Try to find one who treats many multiple myeloma patients and knows a lot about new treatments. There are many treatments available to manage multiple myeloma. New research in clinical trials is looking for a cure.
There are a number of treatments that work to manage multiple myeloma. Until a cure is found, multiple myeloma is managed like a chronic illness. Some people can live for years without treatment. Most people will need treatment on and off throughout their life.
Its important to think about the steps you can take, and talk with your doctor about what you want to do. This is called treatment planning.
Treatment decisions are based on:
- The results of biomarker tests and the stage of your multiple myeloma
- Your values, goals, and preferences
- Your age
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How Is Multiple Myeloma Diagnosed
Doctors often detect multiple myeloma before any symptoms are present. Routine physical exams, blood tests, and urine tests can uncover evidence of this cancer.
More tests will be needed if your doctor finds signs of myeloma when you dont have symptoms. Using the following tests, your doctor can monitor the progression of the disease and determine whether you need treatment.
What Are The First Signs Of Multiple Myeloma
Individuals with multiple myeloma may also develop kidney abnormalities. In some patients, hypercalcemia may cause kidney damage. Hyperviscosity syndrome may cause headaches, nose bleeding, fatigue, frequent bruising, gastrointestinal bleeding, and vision abnormalities such as disease of the retina .
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Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance
Studies done on people who have suffered multiple myeloma cancer has found that almost all of them had a medical condition known as Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in which there is excessive amounts of large protein molecules in the blood.
Generally, MGUS has no symptoms and does not really need any treatment as it does not affect the health condition of an individual. It will only appear in regular blood tests.
- Brendan M. Weiss, Jude Abadie, Pramvir Verma, Robin S. Howard, & W. Michael Kuehl . A monoclonal gammopathy precedes multiple myeloma in most patients.
Learn More About Multiple Myeloma
Educate yourself by learning about multiple myeloma so you can make informed decisions about your treatment. Talk to your doctor about your treatment options and the side effects of treatment.
The National Cancer Institute and International Myeloma Foundation can also provide you with more information about multiple myeloma.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Light Chain Amyloidosis
Patients with amyloidosis can have some of the same problems as patients with myeloma, such as kidney problems and nerve damage. They can also have other problems, such as:
- Heart problems: The heart may enlarge and become weaker. In some people, the heart becomes so weak that fluid builds up in the lungs, making them feel short of breath. Fluid may also build up in the legs and feet . This is called congestive heart failure.
- Enlarged liver: The person may feel the liver below the right ribs. When this gets large it can press on the stomach so the person feels full after eating only a small amount of food.
- Enlarged tongue: When amyloid builds up in the tongue it can get larger. This can lead to problems swallowing and problems breathing during sleep .
- Skin changes: Changes in the color or texture, easy bruising, and bleeding into the skin around the eyes
- Kidney problems
Are There Side Effects Of Medicines Used To Treat Multiple Myeloma
Yes, like most cancer medicines, these medicines have side effects. Your doctor will likely order monthly blood tests to evaluate progress. When melphalan kills the cancer cells, it also kills some of your bodys good cells. You may lose some of your hair, but it will grow back after you stop chemotherapy. However, if you have these symptoms, you should call your doctor right away:
- Skin rash
- Cough that doesnt go away
These are some of the more serious side effects of melphalan. While youre taking melphalan, you must not get pregnant because melphalan might be harmful for the baby.
If the cancer doesnt respond to a combination of melphalan and prednisone, your doctor may talk with you about other treatments. These may include other medicines, radiation treatments, or a bone marrow transplant.
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Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- What can I do to keep myself as healthy as possible?
- Im in a lot of pain. Is there anything I can take to stop the pain?
- How long can I live with multiple myeloma?
- Im having frequent nosebleeds. What can I do to stop them?
- Is multiple myeloma something my children may be prone to?
- I worked around a lot of chemicals when I was younger. Do I need to be screened for multiple myeloma?
Coping With The Costs Of Cancer Care
Cancer treatment can be expensive. It may be a source of stress and anxiety for people with cancer and their families. In addition to treatment costs, many people find they have extra, unplanned expenses related to their care. For some people, the high cost of medical care stops them from following or completing their cancer treatment plan. This can put their health at risk and may lead to higher costs in the future. Patients and their families are encouraged to talk about financial concerns with a member of their health care team. Learn more about managing financial considerations in a separate part of this website.
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How I Found Out My Son Has Leukemia
Childhood leukemia is often found because a child has signs or symptoms that prompt a visit to the doctor. The doctor then orders blood tests, which might point to leukemia as the cause. The best way to find these leukemias early is to pay attention to the possible signs and symptoms of this disease.
Whats The Outlook For People With Multiple Myeloma
People whove recently received a diagnosis of multiple myeloma may not experience symptoms for several years. Once the disease has progressed and symptoms do occur, most people respond well to treatment. However, serious complications can develop, even after years of successful treatment.
An exact timetable for the disease is difficult to predict, but according to the
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What Is Multiple Myeloma What Are Plasma Cells
Multiple myeloma definition
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer of the plasma cells of the bone marrow. Plasma cells are protein-making cells that normally produce the different kinds of antibodies of the disease-fighting immune system. In multiple myeloma, the plasma cells undergo a malignant transformation and become cancerous. These myeloma cells stop making different forms of protein in response to the immune system’s needs and instead start to produce a single abnormal type of protein sometimes termed a monoclonal or M protein. Multiple myeloma plasma cell populations accumulate in the bone marrow, and these collections of cells called plasmacytomas can erode the hard outer shell or cortex of the bone that normally surrounds the marrow. These weakened bones show thinning of the bone, as seen in nonmalignant osteoporosis or what appear to be punched out or lytic bone lesions. These lesions may cause pain and even breaks or fractures of the weakened bones. They may cause other systemic problems listed below. People often refer to multiple myeloma simply as myeloma . The disease usually occurs in people past middle age. However, rarely it can occur in a child.
Can Multiple Myeloma Cause Brain Tumors
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Multiple myeloma can secondarily affect the central nervous system and many cases of intracranial plasmacytoma arising from skull or dura mater have been reported. Intra- parenchymal brain plasmacytoma without bone or dural attach- ment seems to be very rare and only a few cases have been reported .
Furthermore, who is most likely to get multiple myeloma? Your risk of multiple myeloma increases as you age, with most people diagnosed in their mid-60s. Male sex. Men are more likely to develop the disease than are women.
Similarly, it is asked, does multiple myeloma affect the bowels?
Novel therapies used to treat multiple myeloma may be associated with gastrointestinal problems . Do not stop or adjust medications without discussing it with your healthcare provider.
What are the final stages of multiple myeloma?
Symptoms of this late-stage cancer include:
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Genetics And Family History
Research reveals that people who have a family member sister, brother, parent or child who is positive for the medical conditions multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance have a significant chances of 2 or 3 that they too would develop either MGUS or multiple myeloma cancer.
People who do not have any family member who is positive to the condition have a significantly lower chances of developing either of the conditions.
- Jill Corre, Nikhil Munshi, & Hervé Avet-Loiseau . Genetics of multiple myeloma: another heterogeneity level?
Can You Live 20 Years With Myeloma
While multiple myeloma doesnt yet have a cure and can be fatal, patients life expectancies vary widely, according to Jens Hillengass, MD, Chief of Myeloma at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. I have seen patients live from several weeks to more than 20 years after being diagnosed, Dr. Hillengass says.
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What Do Patients With Multiple Myeloma Die From
Multiple myelomas refer to blood cancer, which affects ones plasma cells. In this disease, accumulation of plasma cells in malignant form takes place in the bone marrow i.e. soft and spongy tissues present at the central part of your bones. These cells crowd out regular plasma cells, which are helpful in fighting with infections. Malignant plasma cells further produce M protein i.e. an abnormal antibody, which may cause tumors, bone destructions, impairment of immune function and other severe damages to your kidney. Presence of M protein in ones blood is the prime feature of multiple myeloma disease. In most of the cases, multiple myeloma displays most of the activities in ones bone marrow, which consists of marrows in the pelvic bones, spine area, hips, shoulders, and ribs.
Is It Possible To Prevent Multiple Myeloma
Because health care professionals do not fully understand the risk factors for multiple myeloma, it is not a preventable disease. Currently, there is no cure for the disease. Even some individuals who recommend herbal home remedies like cayenne peppers suggest that patients use the herbals with drugs. Individuals should discuss the use of home remedies with their doctor before use.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Multiple Myeloma
The symptoms of multiple myeloma vary depending on the person. Initially, symptoms may not be noticeable. However, as the disease progresses, most people will experience at least one of four major types of symptoms. These symptoms are generally referred to by the acronym CRAB, which stands for:
- bone damage
High levels of calcium in the blood come from affected bones leaking calcium. Too much calcium can cause:
Confusion and constipation are also common symptoms of increased calcium levels.
Kidney failure can be caused by high levels of M protein in the body.
Anemia is a condition in which the blood doesnt have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the rest of the body. This happens when cancerous cells outnumber red blood cells in the bone marrow. Anemia often causes fatigue, dizziness, and irritability.
Bone injuries and fractures occur when cancerous cells invade the bone and bone marrow. These lesions appear as holes on X-ray images. They often cause bone pain, especially in the:
- exposed to radiation
- employed in the petroleum industry
Another risk factor for multiple myeloma is a history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance . This is a condition that causes plasma cells to produce M proteins. It usually doesnt cause any problems. However, MGUS can sometimes develop into multiple myeloma over time.
What Specialties Of Health Care Professionals Treat Multiple Myeloma
Although the patient’s primary care doctor helps to manage the patient’s care, the specialists involved often include an oncologist, hematology pathologist, radiologist, stem cell transplant specialist, and occasionally a surgeon . Researchers like Avet-Loiseau and others are actively seeking better treatments.
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Genetics And Genomics Of Multiple Myeloma And Pathways Of Stress Management
Clinically actionable mutations to BRAF were also discovered in this first report, which analyzed many MM patient samples. The BRAF G469A mutation in one of the 38 patients and the BRAF K601N and BRAF V600E mutations in 4% of additionally sequenced 161 cases, point to a pathogenetic role of the BRAF regulated signaling, which could be targeted by BRAF inhibitors .
Another approach was used in a mix confirmation/discovery study in NDMM, in which it was confirmed that in MM there are commonly mutated genes and a long tail of uncommonly mutated genes . The NF-B pathway and the DNA damage response pathways were confirmed and identified as recurrently mutated. To note, when the data were interrogated in the context of proteasome inhibitor treatment, no correlations could be found with any alterations, perhaps due to the relatively small sample size .
Walker et al., through the use of integrated genomics investigated the mutational landscape, copy number variations, primary translocations and hyperdiploid status in a large cohort of 1,273 newly diagnosed MM patients , finding 63 MM driver genes. Among them, some were already previously known , some others were new, .
Tessoulin et al. through WES of human MM cell lines found driver genes related to chromatin regulation/modification and DNA repair, associated to drug resistance.