Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Causes Post Traumatic Stress

Ptsd Treatment And Therapy

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder explained (PTSD)- causes, symptoms and treatment

Treatment for PTSD can relieve symptoms by helping you deal with the trauma youve experienced. A doctor or therapist will encourage you to recall and process the emotions you felt during the original event in order to reduce the powerful hold the memory has on your life.

During treatment, youll also explore your thoughts and feelings about the trauma, work through feelings of guilt and mistrust, learn how to cope with intrusive memories, and address the problems PTSD has caused in your life and relationships.

The types of treatment available for PTSD include:

Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy involves gradually exposing yourself to feelings and situations that remind you of the trauma, and replacing distorted and irrational thoughts about the experience with a more balanced picture.

Family therapy can help your loved ones understand what youre going through and help you work through relationship problems together as a family.

Medication is sometimes prescribed to people with PTSD to relieve secondary symptoms of depression or anxiety, although they do not treat the causes of PTSD.

EMDR incorporates elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy with eye movements or other forms of rhythmic, left-right stimulation, such as hand taps or sounds. These techniques work by unfreezing the brains information processing system, which is interrupted in times of extreme stress.

How Is Ptsd Diagnosed

A psychiatrist will diagnose PTSD through a mental health assessment. Your GP should carry out an initial assessment to decide what care you need. Your assessment should include information about:

  • your physical needs,
  • your social needs, and
  • risk.

As part of the assessment they will decide if you need to be referred to the community mental health team . You should be referred to the CMHT if you have had symptoms for more than 4 weeks. Or your symptoms are very bad. A CMHT is part of the NHS. They are a team of mental health professionals.

Doctors use the following manuals to help to diagnose you:

  • International Classification of Diseases produced by the World Health Organisation , and
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual produced by the American Psychiatric Association.

The manuals are guides which explain different mental health conditions.

Negative Impacts On Patients

Next, the cannabis doctor discusses how lack of healthcare and the perceived disinterest of doctors can negatively impact patients with PTSD and mood disorders.

Dr. Merchant: And you add the problems that society has in general. And this is irrespective of how you feel about it politically or how you think we should fix it. But there are more and more people who, for whatever reason, don’t have access to health care. Or frankly, just don’t prioritize health care or have people who are caring for them to prioritize on their behalf.

And then there are other pieces that are just kind of extra. Maybe somebody saw a doc once and he was just completely countless. Didn’t seem interested at all. The doc or therapist doesn’t have to be mean. Doesn’t have to not understand. But all it takes is me looking around, tapping fingers, looking at my keyboard instead of locking eyes with the patient. That really demonstrates the importance of why a rapport with whatever physician and therapist you work with is so important. So that’s what I would say upfront is anybody who’s seeking care for PTSD be sure that you mesh well with the doc.

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Take Care Of Your Body

The symptoms of PTSD, such as insomnia, anger, concentration problems, and jumpiness, can be hard on your body and eventually take a toll on your overall health. Thats why its so important to take care of yourself.

You may be drawn to activities and behaviors that pump up adrenaline, whether its caffeine, drugs, violent video games, driving recklessly, or daredevil sports. After being in a combat zone, thats what feels normal. But if you recognize these urges for what they are, you can make better choices that will calm and protect your bodyand your mind.

Take time to relax.Relaxation techniques such as massage, meditation, or yoga can reduce stress, ease the symptoms of anxiety and depression, help you sleep better, and increase feelings of peace and well-being.

Find safe ways to blow off steam. Pound on a punching bag, pummel a pillow, go for a hard run, sing along to loud music, or find a secluded place to scream at the top of your lungs.

Support your body with a healthy diet. Omega-3s play a vital role in emotional health so incorporate foods such as fatty fish, flaxseed, and walnuts into your diet. Limit processed and fried food, sugars, and refined carbs which can exacerbate mood swings and energy fluctuations.

Neural Circuits In Women With Abuse And Ptsd

Post

PTSD subjects had increased symptoms of anxiety, fear, dissociation, distress, substance use disorders , and PTSD at all time points during both study days relative to non-PTSD. Acquisition of fear was associated with increased skin conductance responses to CS exposure during the active versus the control conditions in all subjects. There was increased SC for PTSD during the first CS-UCS presentation. Extinction of fear was associated with increased skin conductance responses to CS exposure during the active versus the control conditions in all subjects. When PTSD and non-PTSD subjects were examined separately, SC levels were significantly elevated in non-PTSD subjects undergoing extinction following the active compared with the control condition during session one.

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When To Get Help For Ptsd

If youre experiencing symptoms of PTSD, understand that youre not alone. According to the National Center for PTSD, 8 million adults have PTSD in any given year.

If you have frequent upsetting thoughts, are unable to control your actions, or fear that you might hurt yourself or others, seek help right away.

See your healthcare provider or a mental health professional immediately.

Finding A Therapist For Ptsd

When looking for a therapist, seek out mental health professionals who specialize in the treatment of trauma and PTSD. You can ask your doctor or other trauma survivors for a referral, call a local mental health clinic, psychiatric hospital, or counseling center.

Beyond credentials and experience, its important to find a PTSD therapist who makes you feel comfortable and safe. Trust your gut if a therapist doesnt feel right, look for someone else. For therapy to work, you need to feel comfortable and understood.

Get more help

National Center for PTSD Leading research and educational center on PTSD and traumatic stress. Includes resources and treatment info.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Causes, risk factors, and treatments.

Self-Help and Coping Articles on coping with PTSD in healthy ways.

Find treatment and support for PTSD

In the U.S.: Call the NAMI helpline at 1-800-950-NAMI to find a support group near you or search for Trauma Treatment Programs .

In the UK:PTSD UK offers treatment and support options.

In Australia:Phoenix Australia offers PTSD helplines and resources.

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How Do Health Care Professionals Assess Ptsd

    For individuals who may be wondering if they should seek evaluation for PTSD by their medical or mental health professional, self-tests may be useful. The National Institute of Mental Health offers a self-test for PTSD. The assessment of PTSD can be difficult for practitioners to make since sufferers often come to the professional’s office complaining of symptoms other than anxiety associated with a traumatic experience. Those symptoms tend to include body symptoms , depression, or drug addiction. Studies of Iraq war veterans indicate that these individuals tend to show more physical symptoms of PTSD as opposed to describing the associated emotional problems.

    Many people with PTSD may present with a history of making suicide attempts. In addition to depression and substance-use disorders, the diagnosis of PTSD often co-occurs with bipolar disorder , eating disorders, and other anxiety disorders like obsessive compulsive disorder , panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    How Can Parents Help

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

    Above all, your child needs your support and understanding. Sometimes other family members like parents and siblings will need support too. While family and friends can play a key role in helping someone recover, help usually is needed from a trained therapist.

    Here are some other things parents can do to support kids with PTSD:

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    Eye Movement Desensitisation And Reprocessing

    Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing is a relatively new treatment which has been found to reduce the symptoms of PTSD.

    It involves making side-to-side eye movements, usually by following the movement of your therapist’s finger, while recalling the traumatic incident. Other methods may include the therapist tapping their finger or playing a tone.

    It’s not clear exactly how EMDR works but it may help you to change the negative way you think about a traumatic experience.

    The Link Between Stress Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Cortisol

    Cortisol is the primary stress hormone, a steroid hormone of the adrenal cortex, which participates in the regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It has a role in stress and a variety of inflammatory processes in the body . Dysregulation of the secretion of this hormone triggers severe dysregulation mechanisms in the body during stress with farreaching consequences. Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis activates during the stress. If the acute stress is not removed and is prolonged to chronic stress, such deregulated secretion of cortisol can lead to outbreaks of a disease caused by suppressive effects of cortisol on the immune system. Frequent infections and neoplasms can also occur . The stimulative effect of cortisol on proinflammatory cytokines leads to autoimmune diseases and malignancies .

    Headaches, as primary manifestations of hyperarousal, are among the major occurrences in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. They appear to be associated with decreased volumes of subcortical cerebral structures as well as with cooccurrence of anxiety and depression in male therapy naïve patients with PTSD .

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    How Can People Cope With Ptsd

      Some suggested ways for PTSD patients to cope with this illness include learning more about the disorder as well as talking to friends, family, professionals, and PTSD survivors for support. Joining a support group may be helpful. Other tips include reducing stress by using relaxation techniques , actively participating in treatment as recommended by professionals, increasing positive lifestyle practices , and minimizing negative lifestyle practices like substance abuse, social isolation, working to excess, and self-destructive or suicidal behaviors.

      Work Through Survivors Guilt

      How To Treat Post

      Feelings of guilt are very common among veterans with PTSD. You may have seen people injured or killed, often your friends and comrades. In the heat of the moment, you dont have time to fully process these events as they happen. But lateroften when youve returned homethese experiences come back to haunt you. You may ask yourself questions such as:

      • Why didnt I get hurt?
      • Why did I survive when others didnt?
      • Could I have done something differently to save them?

      You may end up blaming yourself for what happened and believing that your actions led to someone elses death. You may feel like others deserved to live more than youthat youre the one who should have died. This is survivors guilt.

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      Ptsd Drugs: Possible Options

      Doctors may prescribe medications other that Zoloft and Paxil, especially if comorbid disorders exist. According the NIH, benzodiazepines are used to aid relaxation and sleep. The side effects include problems with memory and the risk of drug dependency. Antipsychotics may be prescribed. They are typically given to patients with coexisting conditions, such as schizophrenia. Some side effects of antipsychotics are weight gain and a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes. Additionally, other antidepressants may be used as PTSD drugs. Possible options are fluoxetine and citalopram .

      Risk Factors For Ptsd

      People of any age, gender, and background can experience PTSD, although it is more common in certain groups.

      In the United States, research suggests that Black people, Latinos, and Native Americans have higher rates of PTSD than non-Latino whites. Women are also twice as likely as men to develop PTSD.

      Evidence shows that women are more likely to experience childhood sexual abuse and sexual assault. Men are more likely to experience physical violence, accidents, combat, disaster, or be a witness to death or injury.

      Other risk factors of PTSD include:

      • being a refugee

      Being exposed to a traumatic event can lead to lasting changes in brain regions linked to stress, the most pronounced being the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex.

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      Avoidance And Emotional Numbing

      Trying to avoid being reminded of the traumatic event is another key symptom of PTSD. This usually means avoiding certain people or places that remind you of the trauma, or avoiding talking to anyone about your experience.

      Many people with PTSD try to push memories of the event out of their mind, often distracting themselves with work or hobbies.

      Some people attempt to deal with their feelings by trying not to feel anything at all. This is known as emotional numbing. This can lead to the person becoming isolated and withdrawn, and they may also give up pursuing activities they used to enjoy.

      What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Ptsd

      POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD), Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

      People with PTSD have symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression that include many of the following:

      Intrusive thoughts or memories of the event

      • unwanted memories of the event that keep coming back
      • upsetting dreams or nightmares
      • acting or feeling as though the event is happening again
      • heartache and fear when reminded of the event
      • feeling jumpy, startled, or nervous when something triggers memories of the event
      • children may reenact what happened in their play or drawings

      Avoidance of any reminders of the event

      • avoiding thinking about or talking about the trauma
      • avoiding activities, places, or people that are reminders of the event
      • being unable to remember important parts of what happened

      Negative thinking or mood since the event happened

      • lasting worries and beliefs about people and the world being unsafe
      • blaming oneself for the traumatic event
      • lack of interest in participating in regular activities
      • feelings of anger, shame, fear, or guilt about what happened
      • feeling detached or estranged from people
      • not able to have positive emotions

      Lasting feelings of anxiety or physical reactions

      • trouble falling or staying asleep
      • feeling cranky, grouchy, or angry
      • problems paying attention or focusing
      • always being on the lookout for danger or warning signs
      • easily startled

      Signs of PTSD in teens are similar to those in adults. But PTSD in children can look a little different. Younger kids can show more fearful and regressive behaviors. They may reenact the trauma through play.

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      Tip : Support Ptsd Treatment With A Healthy Lifestyle

      The symptoms of PTSD can be hard on your body so its important to take care of yourself and develop some healthy lifestyle habits.

      Take time to relax. Relaxation techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, massage, or yoga can activate the bodys relaxation response and ease symptoms of PTSD.

      Avoid alcohol and drugs. When youre struggling with difficult emotions and traumatic memories, you may be tempted to self-medicate with alcohol or drugs. But substance use worsens many symptoms of PTSD, interferes with treatment, and can add to problems in your relationships.

      Eata healthy diet. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy up and your mind clear with balanced, nutritious meals throughout the day. Omega-3s play a vital role in emotional health so incorporate foods such as fatty fish, flaxseed, and walnuts into your diet. Limit processed food, fried food, refined starches, and sugars, which can exacerbate mood swings and cause fluctuations in your energy.

      Get enough sleep. Sleep deprivation can trigger anger, irritability, and moodiness. Aim for somewhere between 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Develop a relaxing bedtime ritual and make your bedroom as quiet, dark, and soothing as possible.

      Ptsd In Veterans Recovery Step : Get Moving

      Getting regular exercise has always been key for veterans with PTSD. As well as helping to burn off adrenaline, exercise can release endorphins and improve your mood. And by really focusing on your body as you exercise, you can even help your nervous system become unstuck and move out of the immobilization stress response.

      Exercise that is rhythmic and engages both your arms and legssuch as running, swimming, basketball, or even dancingworks well if, instead of continuing to focus on your thoughts as you move, you focus on how your body feels.

      Try to notice the sensation of your feet hitting the ground, for example, or the rhythm of your breathing, or the feeling of the wind on your skin. Many veterans with PTSD find that sports such as rock climbing, boxing, weight training, and martial arts make it easier to focus on your body movementsafter all, if you dont, you could injure yourself. Whatever exercise you choose, try to work out for 30 minutes or more each dayor if its easier, three 10-minute spurts of exercise are just as beneficial.

      The benefits of the great outdoors

      Pursuing outdoor activities in nature like hiking, camping, mountain biking, rock climbing, whitewater rafting, and skiing can help challenge your sense of vulnerability and help you transition back into civilian life.

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      When To Seek Medical Advice

      It’s normal to experience upsetting and confusing thoughts after a traumatic event, but most people improve naturally over a few weeks.

      You should visit your GP if you or your child are still having problems about four weeks after the traumatic experience, or if the symptoms are particularly troublesome.

      If necessary, your GP can refer you to mental health specialists for further assessment and treatment.

      Why Do Some People Develop Ptsd And Other People Do Not

      Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

      It is important to remember that not everyone who lives through a dangerous event develops PTSD. In fact, most people will not develop the disorder.

      Many factors play a part in whether a person will develop PTSD. Some examples are listed below. Risk factors make a person more likely to develop PTSD. Other factors, called resilience factors, can help reduce the risk of the disorder.

      Some factors that increase risk for PTSD include:

      • Living through dangerous events and traumas
      • Getting hurt
      • Feeling horror, helplessness, or extreme fear
      • Having little or no social support after the event
      • Dealing with extra stress after the event, such as loss of a loved one, pain and injury, or loss of a job or home
      • Having a history of mental illness or substance abuse

      Some factors that may promote recovery after trauma include:

      • Seeking out support from other people, such as friends and family
      • Finding a support group after a traumatic event
      • Learning to feel good about ones own actions in the face of danger
      • Having a positive coping strategy, or a way of getting through the bad event and learning from it
      • Being able to act and respond effectively despite feeling fear

      Researchers are studying the importance of these and other risk and resilience factors, including genetics and neurobiology. With more research, someday it may be possible to predict who is likely to develop PTSD and to prevent it.

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